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Torts Keyed to Prosser
Alexander v. Sandoval
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*Case Brief Anatomy includes: Brief Prologue, Complete Case Brief, Brief Epilogue
- The Brief Prologue provides necessary case brief introductory information and includes:
- Topic: Identifies the topic of law and where this case fits within your course outline.
- Parties: Identifies the cast of characters involved in the case.
- Procedural Posture & History: Shares the case history with how lower courts have ruled on the matter.
- Case Key Terms, Acts, Doctrines, etc.: A case specific Legal Term Dictionary.
- Case Doctrines, Acts, Statutes, Amendments and Treatises: Identifies and Defines Legal Authority used in this case.
- The Case Brief is the complete case summarized and authored in the traditional Law School I.R.A.C. format. The Pro case brief includes:
- Brief Facts: A Synopsis of the Facts of the case.
- Rule of Law: Identifies the Legal Principle the Court used in deciding the case.
- Facts: What are the factual circumstances that gave rise to the civil or criminal case? What is the relationship of the Parties that are involved in the case. Review the Facts of this case here:
Petitioner, James Alexander (the "Petitioner"), was the director of Alabama's Department of Public Safety (the "Department"). The Department received grants of financial assistance from both the United States Department of Justice ("DOJ") and United States Department of Transportation. As such, the Department was subject to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ("Title VI"). Section 601 of Title VI states, no person shall, "on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity". Section 602 allowed federal agencies to promulgate regulations to "effectuate the provisions" of §601. The DOJ adopted a regulation forbidding recipients of funding from "utilize[ing] criteria or methods of administration which have the effect of subjecting individuals to discrimination because of their race, color, or national origin….". The state of Alabama amended a provision in its Constitution to make English "the official language of the state of Alabama". Under the auspices of this amendment, and in the name of public safety, the Department required all state driver's license tests be administered in English. The Respondent, Sandoval (the "Respondent"), a class representative, brought a class action suit to enjoin the English only driver's tests, arguing that they violated the DOJ regulation, because they discriminated against non-English speakers due to their national origin. The District Court enjoined the license test policy. The Court of Appeals affirmed the District Court. Both the District Court and Court of Appeals rejected the argument that Title VI did not create a private cause of action.
- Issue(s): Lists the Questions of Law that are raised by the Facts of the case.
- Holding: Shares the Court's answer to the legal questions raised in the issue.
- Concurring / Dissenting Opinions: Includes valuable concurring or dissenting opinions and their key points.
- Reasoning and Analysis: Identifies the chain of argument(s) which led the judges to rule as they did.
- The Brief Prologue closes the case brief with important forward-looking discussion and includes:
- Policy: Identifies the Policy if any that has been established by the case.
- Court Direction: Shares where the Court went from here for this case.